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subject one

post one Gu

List at least 6 challenges posed by pregnant patients in a disaster or MCI situation

Pregnant women would not worry about delivery on normal days. When it is time, they will go to the hospital with professional staff and all the necessary equipment. However, in the case of disasters, the situation is totally different. Here are some challenges and concerns for the pregnant woman in disaster

1)The supply of clean delivery kits for safe, hygienic and smooth deliveries to reduce the rate of maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity could be missing in disasters area.

2)Having no ideas what is going to happen during the evacuation. Knowing that there is a disaster like a typhoon with no care about it and stay at home will make them in a big danger.

3)The emotional state of the pregnant mother may affect her fetal. Stress and anxiety during pregnancy can have both immediate and long-term effects on her fetal. Theis symptoms could associate with a higher incidence of preterm birth, smaller birth weight and length, and increased risk of miscarriage.

4)Infrastructural damage can affect pregnant women. Shelters will provide short-term relief but they need money and time to rebuild their homes. They need antenatal care, childbirth arrangements, and their own future.

5)Pregnant women who have pre-existing health conditions are likely to become even more susceptible to prenatal stress and associated adverse pregnancy outcomes.

6)The high risk of communicable diseases. Some infections can affect the mother and her fetal and cause serious

post two ibra

List at least 6 challenges posed by pregnant patients in a disaster or MCI situation.
  • When there is a shortage of equipment for prenatal care and delivery, this situation seems to be one of the challenges that responders might face during any crisis.
  • In a disaster situation, everyone tends to be evacuated, and in this situation displacement without pay attention to pregnant women may lead to the loss of mother and child too. The responder should pay attention for the pregnant women in order to save lives and reach the goal of the job is saving the life.
  • Emotional stress may lead to premature labor because the mother will be stressed during the disaster. Mother shall lose their child.
  • Pregnant women require excellent nutrition and supplements and are at risk for disrupted prenatal care and preterm labor.
  • Pregnant and babies need high quality of clean water because they can be affected easily if they drink a contaminated water.
  • Lastly, in a hurricane Katrina, there was a lack of adequate supplies and medications, no system was in place to verify the prescriptions of these patients. Moreover, acute health issues unrelated to the hurricane, such as heart attacks and high-risk pregnancies, had to be addressed as well as possible by the emergency workers on the field. ( (Lindstrom and Losavio, 2005

subject two

post one ahm

1.Evaluation and Assurance:

In the Indian Ocean tsunami response, the humanitarian society had to transport massive volumes of aid to millions of people affected in a very tight time. This “need of the vital” affected how well survivors’ needs were understood and the quality of response plans. Although huge numbers of people were reached in record time, there were gaps and repetitions and, most critically, some of the most vulnerable people were not found. Many evaluations made a point of the lack of timely, in-depth analysis that included the views of people affected and also to the poor coordination between humanitarian agencies in needs assessment processes.

2. Organizational Policy:

UNICEF for example supported the donors and partners to achieve the goal of shortening staff deployment time. It includes a comprehensive Emergency Field Handbook, Minimum Operating Security Standards (MOSS) and mandatory security training. More than 1,000 staff have started emergency preparedness and response training (EPRT), and emergency support at the regional level was expanded from 6 to 20 staff in the past three years. 500 staff around the world have completed a computer-based learning course for emergencies.

3. Human Resources:

From the lessons learned in the tsunami, many agencies recognized the ever-increasing need to expand the staffing number and develop the appropriate tools to better integrate them into the system.

post two yas

Priorities in Provision of Humanitarian Aid

Field Operations

In difficult humanitarian emergencies, the necessity to streamline field operations has increased due to the number of difficulties and competing elements.

Using Short-Term Volunteers

Most aid agencies enlist services from volunteers. People who are not prepared for decades of commitment in aid provision are likely to offer the best humanitarian assistance. More often, they are willing to abandon their professions for a few months to assist in times of disaster. Again, best emergency personnel enjoy high opportunity costs given their well-paying jobs back home.

Fostering Recipient Participation

The recipients of aid are the survivors and heroes who are seldom acknowledged in rescue operations. Even when NGOs deploy the largest number of personnel, efforts from the affected population cannot be overlooked (VanRooyen, Hansch, Curtis, & Burnham, 2001). The Ombudsman Project is one attempt to solve this disparity by availing official addresses for recipients to respond to relief requirements.

Bolstering Local Health Systems

Expatriate facilities aid agencies may not be medically sound; hence, they undermine the local healthcare frameworks. Therefore, fostering community-based medical programs can address the health needs of the population towards reconstruction and long-term development after a disaster.

Human Resources

The success of any humanitarian aid is highly dependent on the field personnel. To attain this requirement, many organizations employ various strategies as outlined below.

  • Addressing the Psychological Preparedness of Field Personnel

Considering the devastating nature of disaster regions, emergency crews always face serious emotional issues. In this way, most humanitarian entities offer psychological support, including counseling to workers, in order to sustain ensuing trauma from such operations.

  • Evaluation and Assurance

Most aid corporations understand that the efficacy of their programs depends on past successful undertakings, and thus, they use such evidence in designing future policies. As Kopinak (2013) observes, enhancing data collection and analysis is an important step towards eliminating information biases by third parties. In the last 15 years, NGOs have strived to retrieve reliable field data in order to make correct assessments of disaster programs.

subject three

post one yas

Incident termination is the phase between the end of the emergency and the initiation of restoration and recovery operations. The termination process is divided into three phases: Debriefing, Post-Incident Analysis, The Critique. The debriefing should begin after the emergency phase of the operation completed as soon as possible. Post-Incident analysis is a rebuilding of the incident to establish a clear picture of events that took place during the emergency. The main goal of critique is to develop recommendations for improving the emergency response system rather than find fault with performance of individuals.

The procedure of moving the responsibility for incident command from one Incident Commander to another is called “transfer of command.” It should be recognized that transition of command on an enlarging incident is to be expected. It does not reflect on the competency of the current Incident Commander. Transferring the authorities should be followed through five step: The incoming IC should personally do an assessment of the incident situation with the existing IC. The second step is the incoming IC should be adequately briefed. The third step after the briefing the incoming IC should determine an appropriate time for transfer of command. The next step is at the appropriate time, notice of change in incident command should be made to agency, General Staff member, command staff members, or all incident personnel. The last step is the incoming IC may give the previous IC another assignment on the incident.

To conducting an effective debriefing, it should be given in a free area without any distractions and it should not be more than twenty minutes. Debriefing actions should briefly review the current situation, priorities, issues, objective, current and planned actions, current incident management organization, and resource assignments.

post two hasr

Termination signifies the move from emergency phase termination and commencement of clean-up to re-establishment and recovery operations. It is the stage where responders record the incident response actions ranging from the problem, the involved agencies, risks, and hazards stumble upon, site operations, safety procedures and all the lessons learned. The process involves five different activities that include; incident emergency face termination, a takeover of on-scene command from the IC by the personnel responsible for managing the post-emergency response operations, incident debriefing, post-incident analysis and finally critique (Healy & Tyrrell, 2013).

The IC should meet with the senior agents from the contractor to transfer responsibility or from the responsible party. In order to avoid liability issues, it is important for the personnel to get all the information about the associated risks and hazards regarding the scene. Finally, the transfer should be conducted face to face so that the incident termination personnel can assess the nature of the emergency, operations conducted to resolve and stabilize the emergency, risks, and hazards mitigated relevant documentation as well as responsible parties for the spill. .A comparison of 9-11 and Pearl Harbor incidents, both were crimes of evil and hatred caused by people who bore much dislike for Americans. Even though they have some similarities, they were different in that the Pearl Harbor was carried out by Japanese during peacetime while the 9-11 attack was conducted by terrorists during wartime.

Debriefing should be carried out in a distraction-free area by the leader for a period that does not exceed twenty minutes. Debriefing actions should briefly review the incident without evaluating the actions of every player. It should encompass specific actions that include health information, apparatus and equipment exposure review, contact person follow-up, issues calling for immediate actions and finally appreciations to responders in that order. Lessons learned can be incorporated by taking all safety precautions given to all equipment, self- safety to all the workers and their respective application in the work field to minimize or get rid of all unsafe conditions. They can be implemented by putting codes of conduct to all people to abide by all safety conditions offered by the respective institution (Tuckey & Scott, 2014).

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